Nevertheless when the British left India four years later in 1947, India continued to be haunted by memories of the Bengal Famine. It was therefore natural that food security was a paramount item on free India’s agenda. This awareness led, on one hand to the Green Revolution in India and on the other, legislative measures to ensure that businessmen would never again be able to hoard food for reasons of profit.
However, the term “Green Revolution” is applied to the period from 1967 to 1978. Between 1947 and 1967, efforts at achieving food self sufficiency’s were not entirely successful. Efforts until 1967 largely concentrated on expanding the farming areas. But starvation deaths were still being reported in the newspapers.
The institutional framework of rural economy has always favoured rice. The Green Revolution, despite its scale-neutral nature, has, by-passed the small and marginal farmers. The modern technology can be utilized only as a complete package. The small farmers cannot afford to acquire all the inputs. They are also denied agricultural credit facilities because of the smallness of their holdings.
There is, no doubt, a 'green' revolution is being brought aloud by harnessing science and technology to agricultural production. Food production has shown a welcome increase. India's yearly turnout of food grains now has exceeded twenty crore tonnes. Our country now can boost of helping other countries like Russia, Bangla Desh, Cuba etc. during their needs, due to natural calamities. India has a considerable buffer stock of grains to fall back upon. Much has been done; much remains to be done; for it is a process that must be continuous, if food is to be supplied cheap and in sufficient quantities to the coming generation.
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Also the greater susceptibility of the new seeds to pests and diseases, lack of assured irrigation, less use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides (rice farmers are poor than wheat growers of Punjab and Haryana) and damage to dwarf variety crops during floods have made rice 'orphan' of the 'Green Revolution' (Tirtha and Krishan, 1996, p. 176).
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Large farmers have evicted tenants as they find it more profitable to cultivate themselves. Now, the tenants have gained the status of landless agricultural labourers. Wet lands have attracted industrialists to invest capital in buying farms. The polarisation process that accentuates the rural class differences has been further intensified by the green revolution.
The increasing productivity in agriculture in the green revolution areas increased the status of agriculturists from subsistence farmers to money making farmers. Wolf Ledejinsky says where the ingredients for the new technology are available no farmer denies their effectiveness.
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The CGIAR has had limited success in generating and diffusing technologies and practices that enhance resource and input use efficiency, thereby contributing to improved competitiveness and sustainability (). The call in the work by Conway () for a “Doubly Green Revolution,” which is repeated in his latest book, is important for the CGIAR and the NARSs to heed (). The point that this work () repeatedly makes is that understanding the underlying science is crucial to developing effective solutions. Improved understanding of tropical and subtropical agroecologies is an important global public good that contributes to innovation and new sustainable resource management practices. The emphasis of global public good research in resource management must be on such strategic knowledge generation rather than development of location-specific techniques and products.