The Origin of Species Summary and Analysis of Chapter …

27.01.2012 · Read this essay on Charles Darwin Origin of Species

Thus when, on the first day of October next, "The Origin of Species" comes of age, the promise of its youth will be amply fulfilled; and we [243] shall be prepared to congratulate the venerated author of the book, not only that the greatness of his achievement and its enduring influence upon the progress of knowledge have won him a place beside our Harvey; but, still more, that, like Harvey, he has lived long enough to outlast detraction and opposition, and to see the stone that the builders rejected become the head-stone of the corner.

There have been about 140 reprints in English in this century, many of them in standard library series such as Everyman and the World's Classics. Some are important because they are introduced by leading scholars of evolution and show the changing attitudes towards Darwinism over the years; one, the Everyman of 1956, has even had its introduction reprinted by the Evolution Protest Movement. Almost all of them are bread and butter reprints in small type, but at a reasonable price. However there is one spacious edition, that for the Limited Editions Club of New York in 1963; this was designed and printed by the scholar-printer George Dunstan, at the Griffin Press, Adelaide. There are the usual abridged versions and extracts for schools, and even a coupon edition from Odhams Press. There have been two facsimiles of the first edition; the earlier, in 1964, omits the original index and substitutes its own; the later, in 1969, is twenty millimetres taller than the original. In 1981 a concordance was published: 1981 Ithaca, Cornell University Press. A concordance to Darwin’s origin of species, first edition. 8vo, xv+834 pp. edited by Paul H. Barrett, Donald J. Weinshank and Timothy T. Gottleber.

...Unit 12 Critical Thinking Assignment While Darwin brought us the theory of evolution, William Hamilton contributed with significant views on such evolution through a genetic standpoint. More specifically, after lengthy research and important demonstrations Hamilton became one of the most important evolutionary theorists of the twentieth century through his concepts of kin selection and altruist behavior in nature. As he realized that the simplicity of natural selection could only be seen in an objective viewpoint, he began to search for further evidence of selection and evolution more subjectively until coming to the conclusion that evolution works through genes. Hamilton unveiled the behavioral pattern of altruism (sacrificing one’s life for the survival of others) in animals and came to the conclusion that such behavior in their species was, for the most part, due to gene propagation and it happened within members of a group that were closely related to one another. According to Hamilton, these genes that are passed on help determine altruistic behavior in future generations also. This type of natural behavior is known as kin selection “(acts of altruism performed by an individual that, while of no survival nor reproductive benefit to that individual, results in the passing on of the genes that caused the altruistic behavior.)” Altruistic behavior in nature takes part in processes such as evolutionary fitness (determines how good organisms are at getting their genes......

will here give a brief sketch of the progress of opinion on the Origin of Species

The leading naturalist in Britain was the anatomist , an idealist who had shifted to the view in the 1850s that the history of life was the gradual unfolding of a divine plan. Owen's review of the in the April 1860 bitterly attacked Huxley, Hooker and Darwin, but also signalled acceptance of a kind of evolution as a plan in a continuous "ordained becoming", with new species appearing by natural birth. Others that rejected natural selection, but supported "creation by birth", included the who explained beauty in plumage by design. Since 1858, Huxley had emphasised anatomical similarities between apes and humans, contesting Owen's view that humans were a separate sub-class. Their disagreement over human origins came to the fore at the meeting featuring the legendary . In two years of acrimonious public dispute that satirised as the "" and parodied in as the "great hippopotamus test", Huxley showed that Owen was incorrect in asserting that ape brains lacked a structure present in human brains. Others, including and , thought that humans shared a common ancestor with apes, but higher mental faculties could not have evolved through a purely material process. Darwin published his own explanation in the (1871).

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The leading naturalist in Britain was the anatomist , an idealist who had shifted to the view in the 1850s that the history of life was the gradual unfolding of a divine plan. Owen's review of the in the April 1860 bitterly attacked Huxley, Hooker and Darwin, but also signalled acceptance of a kind of evolution as a plan in a continuous "ordained becoming", with new species appearing by natural birth. Others that rejected natural selection, but supported "creation by birth", included the who explained beauty in plumage by design. Since 1858, Huxley had emphasised anatomical similarities between apes and humans, contesting Owen's view that humans were a separate sub-class. Their disagreement over human origins came to the fore at the meeting featuring the legendary . In two years of acrimonious public dispute that satirised as the "" and parodied in as the "great hippopotamus test", Huxley showed that Owen was incorrect in asserting that ape brains lacked a structure present in human brains. Others, including and , thought that humans shared a common ancestor with apes, but higher mental faculties could not have evolved through a purely material process. Darwin published his own explanation in the (1871).

A Philosophical Critique of Darwin’s The Origin of Species

Evolution had less obvious applications to and , and at first had little impact on the research of the anatomist . Despite this, Huxley strongly supported Darwin on evolution; though he called for experiments to show whether natural selection could form new species, and questioned if Darwin's was sufficient without to cause . Huxley wanted science to be secular, without religious interference, and his article in the April 1860 promoted over natural theology, praising Darwin for "extending the domination of Science over regions of thought into which she has, as yet, hardly penetrated" and coining the term "" as part of his efforts to secularise and professionalise science. Huxley gained influence, and initiated the , which used the journal to promote evolution and naturalism, shaping much of late Victorian science. Later, the German morphologist would convince Huxley that comparative anatomy and could be used to reconstruct .

Evolution had less obvious applications to and , and at first had little impact on the research of the anatomist . Despite this, Huxley strongly supported Darwin on evolution; though he called for experiments to show whether natural selection could form new species, and questioned if Darwin's was sufficient without to cause . Huxley wanted science to be secular, without religious interference, and his article in the April 1860 promoted over natural theology, praising Darwin for "extending the domination of Science over regions of thought into which she has, as yet, hardly penetrated" and coining the term "" as part of his efforts to secularise and professionalise science. Huxley gained influence, and initiated the , which used the journal to promote evolution and naturalism, shaping much of late Victorian science. Later, the German morphologist would convince Huxley that comparative anatomy and could be used to reconstruct .

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Such being the general ferment in the minds of naturalists, it is no wonder that they mustered strong in the rooms of the Linnæan Society, on the 1st of July of the year 1858, to hear two papers by authors living on opposite sides of the globe, working out their results independently, and yet professing to have discovered one and the same solution of all the problems connected with species. The one of these authors was an able naturalist, Mr. Wallace, who had been employed for some years in studying the productions of the islands of the Indian Archipelago, and who had forwarded a memoir embodying his views to Mr. Darwin, for communication to the Linnæan Society. On perusing the essay, Mr. Darwin was not a little surprised to find that it embodied some of the leading ideas of a great work which he had been preparing for twenty years, and parts of which, containing a development of the very same views, [71] had been perused by his private friends fifteen or sixteen years before. Perplexed in what manner to do full justice both to his friend and to himself, Mr. Darwin placed the matter in the hands of Dr. Hooker and Sir Charles Lyell, by whose advice he communicated a brief abstract of his own views to the Linnæan Society, at the same time that Mr. Wallace's paper was read. Of that abstract, the work on the "Origin of Species" is an enlargement; but a complete statement of Mr. Darwin's doctrine is looked for in the large and well-illustrated work which he is said to be preparing for publication.